- Appendix A - Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Harassment Regulation
- Appendix B - A Guide to Bias-Free Communication
- Appendix C - Florida's Statewide Course Numbering System
- Appendix D - Florida Atlantic University Interest Group
- Appendix E - Florida Atlantic University on the Internet
Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Harassment
To view the University's Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Harassment Regulation, please click here.
A Guide to Bias-Free Communication
People in the University community are increasingly aware of the need to use language that recognizes our diversity and does not offend, demean or exclude people on the basis of gender, race, ethnic group, religion, age, ability/disability or sexual orientation.
Changing our language usage, however, does not come easily or automatically. Familiar ways of writing and speaking are more comfortable; substitute phrases do not always spring quickly to mind.
Several years ago, the University developed a guide to assist faculty, staff and students with these issues. FAU's guide very closely mirrors "Guide to Bias-Free Communications" prepared by the University of Wisconsin-Madison and is used here with UW's permission. FAU recognized the many hours of discussion about sensitive issues that preceded the final draft of UW's Guide.
These guidelines are meant to help you find a more encompassing word or phrase when you need it and to be more attuned to language that, whether intended or not, may offend others. The guidelines aim primarily at written material but apply as well to the spoken word.
This area is controversial and in flux. Usage that groups prefer today may change next year. The point is to try to communicate in a way that is respectful of diversity. Also, the examples we cite may not satisfy everyone.
We welcome your comments, questions and suggestions on how to make these guidelines more useful and pertinent.
- Include all people in general references by substituting gender-neutral words and phrases for gender-biased words.
Example Recommended mankind people, humanity, human beings man-to-man defense one-on-one defense man the operation staff the operation manpower labor, human resources layman's terms ordinary terms man hours staff hours, hours man-made manufactured, synthetic, artificial
- Communicate to everyone including both male and female reference points. (Don't presume marital or familial relationships.)
Example Recommended faculty and wives faculty, spouses and guests you and your spouse are invited... you and your guest are
boyfriends/girlfriends friends, guests, partners Dear Sir
Dear Sir or Madam
Dear Madam or Sir
Dear Colleague, Greetings
- Avoid gender-biased pronouns by:
- Dropping pronouns that signify gender and restructuring the statement.
Example Recommended Each student should hand in his term paper by... Each student should hand in a term paper by...
- Changing to plural construction.
Each student should hand in his term paper by... Students should
hand in term papers by...
A nurse cares for her patients. Nurses care for their patients.
- Replacing masculine or feminine pronouns with "one" or "you."
Each student should hand in his term paper by... You should
hand in your term paper by...
- Avoid awkward construction such as he(she), s/he, (s)he, or him/her. Such constructions, which can be easily reworked, imply that women are considered to be the subject only as an afterthought.
Example Recommended As a professor emeritus,
s/he is entitled to a reduced parking fee in Lot 60.
A professor emeritus is entitled to a reduced parking fee in Lot 60. When welcoming a
new teaching assistant, ask him/her to provide
a permanent address
When welcoming new
ask them to provide
- Dropping pronouns that signify gender and restructuring the statement.
- Use parallelism to refer to women and men equally and to make references consistent.
Danny Jones, a strong basketball athlete, and Suzy Favor, an attractive young runner, are... Jones, a strong player, and Favor, a powerful runner, are...
10 men students and
16 female students...
10 male students and 16
Prof. Brown and Julia Smith were recently promoted.
Prof. Brown and Prof. Smith
were recently promoted.
- "Women" is often used, incorrectly or inappropriately, as an adjective. Consider using "female" or eliminating the adjective if it's unnecessary.
ExampleRecommended Geraldine Ferraro was the
first woman vice-presidential candidate.
Geraldine Ferraro was
the first female vice-
Dr. Helen Popovich became the first woman president of FAU on Sept. 1, 1983. Dr. Helen Popovich became the first female president of FAU on Sept. 1, 1983.
- If a direct quote (derived from research or an interview) offends or inappropriately excludes women or men and is not essential to your document, consider eliminating, paraphrasing or replacing the quote.
- Use neutral words for "man" and "woman" in job titles or descriptions.
chairman chair policemen police officers sales girl sales clerk spokesman spokesperson lady lawyer lawyer founding fathers
- Base communication on relevant qualities, not on sex. Avoid sexual stereotyping.
She's a good
basketball player. She shoots like a man.
She's a good basketball player. She shoots well.
A brilliant female
A brilliant researcher...
- Avoid any reference to marital status, parental status or affectional status unless it is directly relevant.
- When choosing photographs or illustrations, consider the balance of women and men. Also, be conscious of the relative positions of women and men and their actions. Non-verbal messages conveyed by portraying men standing/women sitting, men gesturing at smiling women, men pointing to or working with lab and other equipment while women passively observe imply status differences. Such implications, whether subtle or direct, are unrealistic in the modern workplace or university. Work with artists and photographers to update graphic content.
- The terms impairment, disability and handicap are not synonymous. Be sensitive to the meaning of each.
An impairment is a physiological condition. Example: Arthritis is an impairment in which tissues of the joints are damaged.
A disability is the consequence of an impairment. A disability may or may not be handicapping. Example: Disabilities resulting from arthritis include difficulty in bending the spine or limbs, and thus difficulty in walking or performing tasks.
A handicap is the social implication of a disability; a condition or barrier imposed by society, the environment or oneself. The term should not be used to describe a disability. Example: People with arthritic knees and hips may be handicapped by the absence of elevators in older buildings.
- Disabilities may be the result of either injury or disease, often a disease long past. Disabled people should not automatically be viewed as sick or having a disease.
- Put people first, not their disabilities.
The visually impaired students used a
The students with visual
impairments used a
- Do not focus on a disability unless it is relevant to your communication.
The new instructor, whose bout with polio left him on crutches, will teach two sections of African history.
The author of the text on legal rights for the disabled writes from experience. She has had paraplegia since childhood.
- In photos and illustrations, depict disabled people in everyday situations—work, home, play—and show them interacting with people who are not disabled. Do not focus on wheelchairs, crutches or other adaptive equipment.
- When the context calls for discussion of people with and without disabilities, use that term—"people without disabilities"—rather than "normal" or "able-bodied." ("Normal" implies that by comparison disabled people are abnormal; "able-bodied" suggests that all people with disabilities have physical disabilities or are unable to compensate for their disabilities.) "Non-disabled" is another useful term.
- Avoid language that portrays people with disabilities as either unfortunate, helpless victims or, at the other extreme, as courageous superhumans.
RACE AND ETHNICITY
- Avoid identifying people by race or ethnic group unless it is relevant. We don't usually point out that an individual is white or of Anglo-Saxon heritage. The same rule should apply to other groups.
InappropriateRecommended Andrew Young, the black mayor of Atlanta, cast his vote. Andrew Young, mayor of Atlanta,
cast his vote.
Maria Duran, a Hispanic professor of physics, has been promoted to associate professor.
Maria Duran, a professor of physics, has been promoted to associate professor.
Alpha Beta Gamma, the black fraternity, wants to re-roof its building.
Alpha Beta Gamma wants to re-roof its building.
- Avoid the term "non-white," which sets up white culture as the standard by which all other cultures should be judged. Also avoid "culturally disadvantaged" and "culturally deprived." These terms imply that the dominate culture is superior to other cultures or that other groups lack a culture.
- Refer to individuals as "members of a minority group" or specify the minority group (e.g., Latino) when minority group identity is pertinent. ("Minority" refers to a group and serves as a modifier in the term "minority group.")
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.
Women and members of
minority groups are encouraged
Minorities attended the meeting.
Members of the Hmong
and Korean communities
attended the meeting.
- Avoid words, images or situations that reinforce stereotypes and that imply all people of a particular race or ethnic group are the same.
Not surprisingly, the Asian-American students did best in the math contest.
Assuming it is relevant to point out that this group excelled, the phrase "not surprisingly" may reinforce the stereotype that all Asian-Americans have superior aptitude in math.
Stereotypical phrases occur much more commonly in spoken than in written communications. Be conscious of what you say as well as what you write.
- Stay attuned to the current terminology by which racial and ethnic groups refer to themselves. Usage changes (e.g., from "Negro" to "African American," from "Oriental" to "Asian American"). National newspaper and television news are good indicators of current usage. Also, ask people what term they prefer.
People who trace their ancestry through the Caribbean or Central and South America may identify themselves as coming from any one of a number of different cultures and ethnic groups. For instance, the terms Hispanic, Latino/a, Chicano/a and Puertorriqueno/a all have different meanings. Many people whom the U.S. Census would describe as "Hispanic" prefer the term "Latino or Latina." Some people with Spanish-sounding surnames may have indigenous Indian, German or Asian ancestry or prefer to be referred to by their nationality, e.g., Colombian, Nicaraguan, Guatemalan. Others may prefer that no reference be made to their nationality or ancestry.
People whose ancestors originally populated North America may want to be identified with specific communities, such as Seminole or Miccosukee, or they may prefer to be referred to as "American Indian" or "Native American" rather than "Indian." If in doubt, ask.
Also, attention must be paid to the punctuation used in referring to racial and ethnic groups. The terms "African American," "Asian American" and so forth are nouns and should not be hyphenated. However, when these terms are used as modifiers (e.g., "the Asian-American students" in example number 4), they should be hyphenated.
- Be sensitive to religion when referring to various ethnic groups. Don't make assumptions. For instance, just as not all Arabs are Muslims, most nationalities and ethnicities will embody different religious practices. Avoid stereotyping a race, nationality or ethnic group with a specific religion.
- Be sure your communications do not patronize or give token attention to members of racial or ethnic groups. Exaggerated focus on people's accomplishments or insincere and gratuitous references to their concerns imply that these people are not normally successful or accomplished or are not considered to be in the mainstream of society.
- Review written communications and visual materials to ensure that, where appropriate, all groups—women, men, minority and ethnic group members, older people and disabled people—are represented.
This does not mean that every publication, video or similar material must include all groups at all times or that participation of particular groups should be exaggerated or overstated. But generic campus publications, such as college bulletins or communications that are part of a continuing series (such as newspapers or annual reports), should aim for reasonable representation of all groups involved.
- "Gender orientation" and "sexual orientation" are preferred to "sexual preference," a term that implies that being homosexual, bisexual or heterosexual is a matter of choice.
- Most gay people prefer the term "gay" to the somewhat clinical "homosexual." The term "gay" may be used to refer to both men and women, but "lesbian" is the term preferred by gay women. Keep in mind also that people of a bisexual orientation may not consider themselves to be part of either the gay or heterosexual community. As a matter of principle, refer to societal groups in the way that members of each group prefer. Ask people what term they prefer.
- Avoid using "gay lifestyle" or "lesbian lifestyle." Being gay or lesbian is not a lifestyle; it is a fundamental orientation. In addition, gays' lives and relationships are as diverse as those of the rest of the population.
- "Gay community" is an umbrella term used in the same manner that a name such as "the Italian-American community" is used to describe a group whose members have similar, but not identical, backgrounds and social agendas. The term may be used to refer to both men and women but again, "lesbian and gay community" is preferred.
- Include the viewpoint of somebody who is gay when reporting on a gay topic. Better yet, solicit more than one gay viewpoint, since the gay, lesbian and bisexual community is not monolithic.
- Avoid classroom or extracurricular activities or exercises that assume all students are heterosexual or that otherwise invade students' privacy.
- Refer to a person's age only when it is relevant to the medium or the message. For example, communications that follow newspaper style are generally expected to state a subject's age. However, in most internal University communications, age is not pertinent and its mention may even be distracting.
The researchers, ages 56 and 60, won a grant from NIH.
Patricia Schmidt, 12, will study at FAU this spring. She is the youngest student ever to enroll at the University.
- If you use a generic age description, ask your subjects what wording they prefer. Do they refer to themselves as older persons or senior citizens? As youths, teenagers or young people?
- Avoid cliches such as "precocious," "spry" or "chipper," and avoid generalizations that reinforce stereotypes about age. Middle school children are not necessarily troublemakers, and not everyone over 80 lives in a nursing home.
- Don't assume older people are less intellectually, physically or emotionally able than other age groups. Also don't underestimate the capabilities of younger people simply on the basis of their age.
Carl Elliot, 12, feeds his dog every day without having to be reminded.
Darleen Hampton, 62, still puts in a full day in the admissions office.
- Don't use patronizing language.
The sweet little old lady beamed as she
entered the classroom.
The older woman smiled as she entered the classroom.
- In communications meant to represent a range of experiences or viewpoints, include people of diverse ages.
- Newspaper style dictates that females 18 years or older are women, not girls; males 18 years or older are men, not boys. In a university setting, however, it may be more appropriate to refer to all students, whether 17 or 60, as men and women.
Florida's Statewide Course Numbering System
Courses in this catalog are identified by prefixes and numbers that were assigned by Florida's Statewide Course Numbering System (SCNS). This numbering system is used by all public postsecondary institutions in Florida and participating nonpublic institutions. The major purpose of this system is to facilitate the transfer of courses between participating institutions. Students and administrators can use the online SCNS to obtain course descriptions and specific information about course transfer between participating Florida institutions. This information is on the SCNS website.
Each participating institution controls the title, credit and content of its own courses and recommends the first digit of the course number to indicate the level at which students normally take the course. Course prefixes and the last three digits of the course numbers are assigned by members of faculty discipline committees appointed for that purpose by the Florida Department of Education in Tallahassee. Individuals nominated to serve on these committees are selected to maintain a representative balance as to type of institution and discipline field or specialization.
The course prefix and each digit in the course number have a meaning in the SCNS. The listing of prefixes and associated courses is referred to as the "SCNS taxonomy." Descriptions of the content of courses are referred to as "statewide course profiles."
|EXAMPLE OF COURSE IDENTIFIER|
|1||Lower (Freshman) Level at this institution|
|0||Freshman Composition Skills|
|1||Freshman Composition Skills I|
|Lab Code||No laboratory component in this course|
GENERAL RULE FOR COURSE EQUIVALENCIES
Equivalent courses at different institutions are identified by the same prefixes and same last three digits of the course number and are guaranteed to be transferable between participating institutions that offer the course, with a few exceptions, as listed below in
Exceptions to the General Rule for Equivalency.
For example, a freshman composition skills course is offered by 84 different public and nonpublic postsecondary institutions. Each institution uses "ENC_101" to identify its freshman composition skills course. The level code is the first digit and represents the year in which students normally take the course at a specific institution. In the SCNS taxonomy, "ENC" means "English Composition," the century digit "1" represents "Freshman Composition," the decade digit "0" represents "Freshman Composition Skills" and the unit digit "1" represents "Freshman Composition Skills I."
In the sciences and certain other areas, a "C" or "L" after the course number is known as a lab indicator. The "C" represents a combined lecture and laboratory course that meets in the same place at the same time. The "L" represents a laboratory course or the laboratory part of a course that has the same prefix and course number but meets at a different time or place.
Transfer of any successfully completed course from one participating institution to another is guaranteed in cases where the course to be transferred is equivalent to one offered by the receiving institution. Equivalencies are established by the same prefix and last three digits and comparable faculty credentials at both institutions. For example, ENC 1101 is offered at a community college. The same course is offered at a state university as ENC 2101. A student who has successfully completed ENC 1101 at a Florida College System institution is guaranteed to receive transfer credit for ENC 2101 at the state university if the student transfers. The student cannot be required to take ENC 2101 again since ENC 1101 is equivalent to ENC 2101. Transfer credit must be awarded for successfully completed equivalent courses and used by the receiving institution to determine satisfaction of requirements by transfer students on the same basis as credit awarded to the native students. It is the prerogative of the receiving institution, however, to offer transfer credit for courses successfully completed that have not been designated as equivalent.
Credit generated at institutions on the quarter-term system may not transfer the equivalent number of credits to institutions on the semester-term system. For example, 4.0 quarter hours often transfers as 2.67 semester hours.
THE COURSE PREFIX
The course prefix is a three-letter designator for a major division of an academic discipline, subject matter area or subcategory of knowledge. The prefix is not intended to identify the department in which a course is offered. Rather, the content of a course determines the assigned prefix to identify the course.
AUTHORITY FOR ACCEPTANCE OF EQUIVALENT COURSES
Section 1007.24(7), Florida Statutes, states:
Any student who transfers among postsecondary institutions that are fully accredited by a regional or national accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education and that participate in the statewide course numbering system shall be awarded credit by the receiving institution for courses satisfactorily completed by the student at the previous institutions. Credit shall be awarded if the courses are judged by the appropriate statewide course numbering system faculty committees representing school districts, public postsecondary educational institutions, and participating nonpublic postsecondary educational institutions to be academically equivalent to courses offered at the receiving institution, including equivalency of faculty credentials, regardless of the public or nonpublic control of the previous institution. The Department of Education shall ensure that credits to be accepted by a receiving institution are generated in courses for which the faculty possess credentials that are comparable to those required by the accrediting association of the receiving institution. The award of credit may be limited to courses that are entered in the statewide course numbering system. Credits awarded pursuant to this subsection shall satisfy institutional requirements on the same basis as credits awarded to native students.
EXCEPTIONS TO THE GENERAL RULE FOR EQUIVALENCY
Since the initial implementation of the SCNS, specific disciplines or types of courses have been excepted from the guarantee of transfer for equivalent courses. These include courses that must be evaluated individually or courses in which the student must be evaluated for mastery of skill and technique. The following courses are exceptions to the general rule for course equivalencies and may not transfer. Transferability is at the discretion of the receiving institution.
- Courses not offered by the receiving institution.
- For courses at nonregionally accredited institutions, courses offered prior to the established transfer date of the course in question.
- Courses in the _900-999 series are not automatically transferable and must be evaluated individually. These include such courses as special topics, internships, apprenticeships, practica, study abroad, theses and dissertations.
- Applied academics for adult education courses.
- Graduate courses.
- Internships, apprenticeships, practica, clinical experiences and study abroad courses with numbers other than those ranging from 900-999.
- Applied courses in the performing arts (art, dance, interior design, music and theatre) and skills courses in criminal justice (academy certificate courses) are not guaranteed as transferable. These courses need evidence of achievement (e.g., portfolio, audition, interview, etc.).
COURSES AT NONREGIONALLY ACCREDITED INSTITUTIONS
The SCNS makes available on its website a report entitled "Courses at Nonregionally Accredited Institutions" that contains a comprehensive listing of all nonpublic institution courses in the SCNS inventory, as well as each course's transfer level and transfer effective date. This report is updated monthly.
Questions about the SCNS and appeals regarding course credit transfer decisions should be directed to Maria Jennings at email@example.com in the Office of the Registrar at FAU, or to the Florida Department of Education, Office of Articulation, 1401 Turlington Building, Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0400. Special reports and technical information may be requested by calling the SCNS office at 850-245-0427 or by visiting its website.
Florida Atlantic University Interest Group
FAU-L is an unmoderated discussion list dealing with issues, concerns and news related to Florida Atlantic University, its alumni, students, faculty, visitors and friends. The discussion list intends to exchange ideas, answer questions and share experiences between and among members. This discussion list is open to all interested individuals and organizations.
To subscribe or unsubscribe:
- Log into FAU’s Sympa website at https://lists.fau.edu.
- Enter fau-l in the search for list(s) field and click search links. Click on the fau-l link.
- On the left side of the page, click Subscribe or Unsubscribe and follow the prompts.
- A confirmation email will be sent.
To post a message to the list members:
Send a message to the mailing list’s address through email by addressing it to firstname.lastname@example.org. Or, messages can be sent from within FAU’s Sympa website:
- Log into FAU’s Sympa website at https://lists.fau.edu.
- Click the link for fau-l.
- Click Post.
- In the mail form, fill in the subject line.
- Write in the message body.
Send to selected recipient.
Florida Atlantic University on the Internet
An interesting and always growing body of current information about FAU is available at www.fau.edu.
FAU's course schedule has information about current class sizes and is updated regularly with details about cancelled, closed and held classes. Any changes of time, day or location are also available in the course schedule at myfau.fau.edu.