Mouse Handout

Mus musculus

Background

The laboratory mouse in the wild is known as the common mouse. Through introduction by man the common house mouse now frequents most of the world. The wild mouse was originally thought to be native to Asia, India, and western Europe. There are both commensal and wild forms of the house mouse. The commensal forms often move out from buildings into surrounding fields in the spring and summer and return to the shelter of the buildings in the fall. The common house mouse is light brown to black above and whitish below, often with a buffy wash and tail that is lighter below. Commensal forms of Mus musculus tend to have longer tails and to be darker than the wild forms. Commensal forms of the house mouse are active at any hour; the wild forms seem to be active mainly at night. The range of movement in a common house mouse is very limited; it may be an area of only 15 square meters. They are not afraid of water and swim well. Nests are often made of soft shredded material wherever suitable cover and food are present.

Commensal forms feed on any human food that is available and also on paste, glue, soap, and other household articles. They damage much more than they eat. They seem to survive on very little, hence the term "poor as a church mouse". In the wild they eat many kinds of vegetables such as seeds, fleshy roots, and leaves and stems; insects and some meats may be eaten when available. They will also store food at times. They breed throughout the year at least in the warm parts of the range, and may have five or more litters a year. Because of this high fecundity, wild populations become very high at times. Population increases occurred in 1926-1927 and in 1941-1942 in the central valley of California. A population of more than 82,000, per acre was estimated in the first of these ecological explosions. The mouse has worked the sparsely vegetated soil until it appeared to be recently cultivated. Millions of mice were warming around the area until the population trend was reversed. "Sing", "waltzing", and "shaker" genetic abnormalities are common in house mice. "Singing" mice are so called because a fait but audible uttering is emitted by house mice in their shelters and has been reported from various parts of the world. The waltzing or shaker mice are caused by a defect in the equilibrium system; they "waltz" or "shake" instead of moving about like normal mice. Common house mice cause food spoilage and damage to household articles and also transport the hosts of typhus, spotted fever, and possibly other human diseases. The albino strains of M. musculus are used extensively for laboratory work. The genetics of the house mouse have been more thoroughly studied than that of any other mammal.

Handling Techniques

In handling laboratory mice, there are several things that must be kept in mind. You must be firm but gentle and always handle the animal in the same way. A mouse is best handled by picking it up by the base of the tail, then gently grasping a pinch of lose skin over the shoulder area between the thumb and forefinger (Figure 1)

The mouse is restrained in such a way can be easily manipulated. If the mice are excitable and moving around in the cage so that grasping the base of the tail is difficult, cup the hand over the top of the mouse and then grasp the tail gently at the base with a thumb and forefinger. Care must be taken not to attempt to grab the tail other than close to the base because this may result in slippage of the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the bone leading to necrosis, infection, and sloughing of the tail area where the skin has been pulled off.

Experimental Uses

The mouse, although the smallest of the common laboratory animals, is in the greatest demand in terms of numbers as an experimental animal. Up to 80% of all animals used in laboratories are mice. The small size, rapid reproduction, and relatively high position on the evolutionary scale provide numerous characteristics useful in all areas of research. The mouse is used in a wide variety of studies including drug toxicity, microbiology, radiobiology, cancer research, behavior research, nutrition, and genetic studies.

Strains and Sources

There are more inbred strains of mice than any other mammalian species. These inbred strains offer the investigator a wide range of capabilities and are suitable for almost any research protocol. These inbred strains have, for the most part, been genetically defined to enable the investigator to select a model to fit his particular need with ease. A primary source of inbred laboratory mice in the United States is the Jackson Memorial Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The majority of inbred strains available are maintained at this laboratory and are available for investigator use. Other individual suppliers of laboratory mice may have many of the strains available. Care must be taken to investigate fully the supplier's reputation in the research field before utilization of these mice. It is recommended that once an individual supplier is selected and a study is initiated, the researcher should resist changing suppliers until the individual study is completed. Although several suppliers may offer the same genetic strain, the variability between one supplier and another can be great. It cannot be over emphasized that extreme care and caution must be taken when selecting a source and a strain of animals to be used for specific research protocol. The laboratory mouse is not specifically covered in the rules and regulations under the various public laws administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Therefore no specific permits or licenses are required to produce or handle these animals.

Husbandry

Mice should be kept in rooms with the temperature set at about 70F and humidity at 50%. Lights should not be too bright since most white mice are albinos and too much light hurts their eyes. They are diurnal which means they need about 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness each day. Their bedding should not be wood shaving since some wood emits toxic fumes to mice. They should have fresh mouse or rat food and water available at all times. Their bedding should be changed 2 or 3 times a week to prevent the buildup of urea.

Signs of Disease

Signs of disease in the mouse can be broken down into several groups:

Cutaneous Signs - "Barbering" is common vice among mice, particularly among adult breeding mice. The muzzle and other areas of the body are frequently "shaved" by cage mates. Other causes of hair loss or discoloration is generally due to disease. Swellings under the skin should be examined for cause: abscess, tumor, infection, etc. Biting and cage trauma are common causes of limb or tail injury.

Gastrointestinal Signs - Diarrhea in mice is generally caused by disease or diet. Pendulous abdomen can be caused by pregnancy or disease. Rectums occasionally prolapse.

Respiratory Signs - Nasal and ocular discharge and dyspnea are generally due to disease, including lymphocytic choriomeningitis.

Neuromuscular Signs - Trauma and disease can cause a variety of signs from head tilt to seizures to paralysis.

Other Signs - Weight loss can be from a variety of signs including dehydration, starvation, parasitism, disease, neoplasia and malocclusion. Stress from extreme temperatures and rapid changes of temperature, noises, trauma, etc. can cause death. Pesticides and detergents misuse-used can lead to death.

PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GENERAL DATA

This information is for informational purposes only.
Contact your veterinarian for the latest information.

COMMON NAME MOUSE
ORDER RODENTIA
FAMILY MURIDAE
GENUS MUS
SPECIES MUSCULUS    
TEMPERATURE IN C 35.5-39.0
TEMPERATURE IN F 99.3
RESPIRATORY B/M 60-250
RESPIRATORY MINUTE VOL. l/m 0.011-.036
RESPIRATORY TIDAL VOLUME m     0.09-.23
PaCO 2 mmHg 50
PaO 2 mmHg -
OXYGEN USE ML/G/HR 1.63-2.17
HEART RATE B/M 325-780
ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE mm 113-147/9
ARTERIAL BLOOD pH 7.4
BLOOD CLOTTING TIME SEC. 14
BLOOD VOLUME ml/kg TOTAL 76-80
BLOOD VOLUME ml/kg EXSANGU 35
BLOOD VOLUME ml/kg 1 SAMPLE 7
BLOOD CALCIUM mg/100 3.2-8.5
BLOOD PHOSPHORUS mg/100ml 2.3-9.2
BLOOD MAGNESIUM mg/100ml 1.3
BLOOD CHOLESTEROL mg/100ml 26-82
BLOOD SERUM PROTEIN gm/100m 3.5-7.2
BLOOD ALBUMIN gm/100ml 2.5-4.8
BLOOD GLOBULIN gm/100ml 0.6
BLOOD GLUCOSE - mg/100ml 62-175
BLOOD UREA NITROGEN MG/DL 12-28
CREATININE MG/DL 0.3-1
TOTAL BILIRUBIN MG/DL 0.1-0.9
ALK.PHOSPHATASE i.u./L 65
BLOOD HEMATOCRIT % 35-49
BLOOD HEMOGLOBIN g/100ml 10-20
BLOOD RBC 10 6/mm 3 7-12
BLOOD PLATELETS 10 3/mm 3 160-410
BLOOD LEUCOCYTES % 8/6-15
BLOOD NEUTROPHILS % 2/10-40
BLOOD EOSINOPHILS % 0.15/0.4
BLOOD BASOPHILS % 0.05/0-0.3
BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES % 5.5/55-95
BLOOD MONOCYTES % 0.3/3.5
FEED DAILY gm/kg 15g/100g
WATER 15ml/100g
ROOM TEMPERATURE C 25
ROOM HUMIDITY % 45-55
ROOM LIGHT HOURS/DAY 10-12
WEIGHT ADULT MALE gm 20-40
WEIGHT ADULT FEMALE gm 25-40
WEIGHT AT BIRTH gm 1.5
BREEDING AGE-MALE DAYS 50
BREADING AGE-FEMALE DAYS 50-60
ESTRUS CYCLE DAYS 4-5
GESTATION DAYS 17-21
WEANING AGE DAYS 16-28
LITTER SIZE 1-23
BREEDING AFTER PARTURITION IMMED.
BREEDING LIFE-MALE YEARS 0.9-1.5
BREEDING LIFE-FEMALE 6-120 litters
BREEDING/MATING DATA MALE 1/3
MILK FAT % 12.1
MILK LACTOSE % 3.2
MILK PROTEIN % 9
BODY SURFACE AREA CM 2 10.5
DIPLOID NUMBER KARYOTYPE 40
LIFE SPAN YEARS 1.5-3
GI TRANSITION TIME HOURS 8-14
CAGE SIZE L X W X H 15 in 2 X 5 in

Data is from many sources and is meant only as a quick reference. Figures are from Harkness, "The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents" Text is mostly from Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

Mouse Formulary

Anesthesia/Analgesia Anesthetic Gas Anticholinergic Antiparasitic Euthanasia
Anti-inflammatory Antibiotics Miscellaneous Notes  
ANESTHETIC, ANALGESIC Dose Comments / Back to Top
ACETAMINOPHEN (TYLENOL) 1-2 MG/ML DW (14) // 300 MG/KG IP NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC
ACETHYLSALICYLICATE ACID (ASPIRIN) 120-300 MG/KG PO OR 100-150 MG/KG PO q4h (14) // 25 IP/20 SC/120 PO MG/KG Q4H(2) NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC
ACETYLPROMAZINE (ACEPROMAZINE) - DOSAGE 0.5-1.0 MG/KG IM (14) // 1-2 MG/KG IM TRANQUILIZER-PHENOTHIAZINE
BUPIVACAINE (MARCAINE) AS NEEDED LOCAL ANESTHETIC
BUPRENORPHINE (BUPRENEX) 0.05-0.1 MG/KG IP (1)12//2 MG/KG SC (1) Q12H (2)/(4) 0.05-2.5 MG/KG SC, IP q6-12h (14) (USE 0.05) NARCOTIC AGONIST-ANTAGONIST V
BUTORPHANOL (STADOL OR TORBUTROL) 1.5 MG/KG SC q2-4h (14) // 5.4 MG/KG SC (1) NARCOTIC AGONIST-ANTAGONIST V
DIAZAPAM (VALIUM)  5 MG/KG IP // 3-5 MG/KG IM (14) TRANQUILIZER - BENZODIAZEPINE IV
DIAZAPAM - DURATION TO EFFECT 1-2 HOURS TRANQUILIZER - BENZODIAZEPINE IV
DIAZAPAM - TIME TO EFFECT 1-2 MIN TRANQUILIZER - BENZODIAZEPINE IV
FENTANYL/DROPERIDOL (INNOVAR-VET)-DOSAGE 0.3-0.5 ML/KG IM (14) // 2-5 ML/KG (4) NEUROLEPTANALGESIC, NARCOTIC/BUTYROPHENONE TRANQUILIZER II
FENTANYL/ DROPERDOL - DURATION EFFECT 15-20 MIN NEUROLEPTANALGESIC, NARCOTIC/BUTYROPHENONE TRANQUILIZER II
FENTANYL/DROPERIDOL - TIME TO EFFECT 2 MIN NEUROLEPTANALGESIC, NARCOTIC/BUTYROPHENONE TRANQUILIZER II
FENTANYL/DROPERIDOL/DIAZEPAM-DOSE 5 MG/KG DIAZEPAM IP 1ST,/FOLLOWED BY 0.1 ML/30G IP OF 1:10 SALINE DILUTION INNOVAR (1) NEUROLEPTANALGESIC, NARCOTIC/BUTYROPHENONE TRANQUILIZER, BUTYROPHENONE II
IBUPROFEN 7-15 MG/KG PO q4h (14) ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIA
KETAMINE (KETASET, VETALAR) - DOSAGE 44 MG/KG IM (14) // 100-200 MG/KG IM (1) DISSOCIATIVE
KETAMINE-ACEPROMAZINE 100/2.5 MG/KG IM (1)/ (2) DISSOCIATIVE/TRANQUILIZER
KETAMINE-DIAZEPAM (VALIUM) 200 IM/5 IP MG/KG (1)/ (2) DISSOCIATIVE/TRANQUILIZER
KETAMINE-XYLAZINE (ROMPUN) 50/5 MG/KG IP (14) // 200 IM/10 IP MG/KG (1)/ (2) DISSOCIATIVE/ANALGESIC
MEPERIDINE (DEMEROL) 20 MG/KG IM SC (14) (1) Q2-3H NARCOTIC II, ANALGESIC
METHOHEXITAL (BREVITAL/BREVANE) 6 MG/KG IV  (2) ULTRA SHORT BARBITURATE IV
MORPHINE 2-5 MG./KG SC q2-5h (14) // 10 MG/KG IM SC  (1) Q2-4H (2) NARCOTIC II, ANALGESIC
NALBUPHINE (NUBAIN) 4-8 MG/KG IM q3h (14) NARCOTIC AGONIST-ANTAGONISTS ANALGESIC
OXYMORPHONE (NUMORPHAN) DOSAGE 0.2-0.5 MG/KG SC IM q6-12h (14) NARCOTIC II, ANALGESIC
PENTAZOCINE (TALWIN-V) 10 MG/KG SC q2-4h (14)(2) IM IV Q3-4H (2) NON-NARCOTIC ANALGESIC IV
PENTOBARBITAL Na (NEMBUTAL) 40 MG/KG IV IP SEDATION /50-90 MG/KG IP SURG. ANEST.(14) (1)/ (4) BARBITURATE SHORT II, SEDATION, ANESTHETIC (NOT RECOMMENDED -MARGINAL ANALGESIA (14))
PHENYLBUTAZONE (BUTAZOLDIN) 150 MG/KG IP  (7) NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
PROCAINE (NOVOCAIN) NEVER ANESTHETIC LOCAL
PROPOFOL (RAPINOVET)  12-26 MG/KG IV (14) ANESTHETIC
THIAMYLAL (SURITAL) 20-50 MG/KG IV IP//25-50 IV (4) BARBITURATE ULTRA SHORT III
THIOPENTAL (PENTOTHAL) 30-40 MG/KG IV (2) ONLY (1) //25-50 IV (4) BARBITURATE ULTRA SHORT III
TILETAMINE/ ZOLAZEPAM (TELAZOL) 50MG BASE/ML 100-160 MG/KG IP IM (1) DISSOCIATE/TRANQUILIZER III
TRIBROMOETHANOL (AVERTIN) (0.25%) 125 MG/KG IP (1)/0.25% (2) ANESTHETIC
XYLAZINE (ROMPUN)- DOSAGE 4-8 MG/KG IM ALPHA-2-ADRENERGIC AGONIST SEDATIVE, ANALGESIC, MUSCLE RELAXANT
YOHIMBINE. (YOBINE)  0.5-1.0 MG/KG IV (14) XYLAZINE REVERSAL
ANESTHETIC GAS Dose Comments / Back to Top
HALOTHANE - MAC TO EFFECT INHALANT
ISOFLURANE - MAC TO EFFECT INHALANT
METHOXYFLURANE - MAC TO EFFECT INHALANT
NITROUS OXIDE-MAC TO EFFECT INHALANT
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY Dose Comments / Back to Top
DEXAMETHASONE (AZIUM) 0.06 MG SC IM IV IP STEROID
PREDNISONE (METICORTIN) 0.05-0.22 MG SC IM STEROID
ANTIBIOTIC Dose Comments / Back to Top
AMIKACIN 2-5 MG/KG SC. IM q8-12h(14) ANTIBIOTIC
AMOXICILLIN 100 MG/KG SC IM Q12H(2) ANTIBIOTIC
AMPICILLIN (POLYFLEX) 20-100 MG/KG PO, SC, IM q12h (14) // 50-150 MG/KG SC Q12H(2) // OR 30 MG/KG IM Q24H (4.5 MG/30 MG)(3) BETA LACTAM ANTIBIOTIC
BACITRACIN TOPICAL ANTIBIOTIC
CARBENICILLIN 100 MG/KG PO q12h (14)
CEPHALORIDINE (LORIDINE) 10-25 MG/KG SC, IM q24h (14) BETA LACTAM ANTIBIOTIC
CHLORAMPHENICOL PALMITATE (CHLOROMYCETIN) DW 0.5 MG/ML(3)(14) BACTERIAL STATIC BROAD SPEC.
CHLORAMPHENICOL SUCCINATE (CHLOROMYCETIN) 50-200 MG/KG PO q8h OR 30-50 MG/KG SC, IM q24h (14) // 50 MG/KG IM Q12H(2) // OR Q24H (1.5 MG/30 GM)(3) BACTERIAL STATIC BROAD SPEC.
DIHYDROSTREPTOMYCIN NEVER BACTERIAL
DOXYCYCLINE 2.5MG/KG PO q12h (14) PNEUMONIA, NOT IN YOUNG OR PREGNANT
ENROFLOXACIN 25-85 MG/KG q24h X 14 DAYS OR 0.05-0.20 MG/ML DW X 14 DAYS(14) PASTEURELLOSIS
ERYTHROMYCIN  20 MG/KG PO (14) BACTERIAL
GENTAMICIN (GENTOCIN) 5 MG/KG SC, IM q24h (14) // 5 MG/KG SC IM SID (0.15 MG/30GM) (3)14D AMINOGLYCOSIDES
GRISEOFULVIN (FULVICIN U/F) 25-50 MG/KG PO q12h X 14-60 DAYS (14) // 75 MG/KG PO SID 14D// OR 60 MG/KG PO IN FOOD(3) ANTIFUNGAL
KETOCONAZOLE 10-40 MG/KG PO q24h X 14 DAYS SYSTEMIC MYCOSES, CANDIDIASIS
NEOMYCIN (BIOSOL) 50 MG/KG SC  q24h (14) // 2.6 MG/ML DW (14) DIARRHEA
OXYTETRACYCLINE (LIQUAMYCIN)  0.4 MG/ML DW(3)(14) // 100 MG/KG SC Q12H(2)// 10-20 MG/KG PO q8h (14) BACTERIAL STATIC BROAD SPEC.
PENICILLIN PROCAINE (AZIMYCIN) NEVER BACTERIAL
STREPTOMYCIN (BIOTEC) NEVER BACTERIAL
SULFADIMETHAXINE 10-15 MG/KG PO q12h  (14)
SULFAMERAZINE 1 MG/ML DW (14) // 1 MG/4G FEED (14) BACT. COCCIDIA, CIT,B
SULFAMETHAZINE 1 MG/ML DW (14) 
SULFAQUINOXALINE (SULQUIN) 1MG/ML DW (14) // 0.025% 30days EIMERIA, KLOS. PAST.
TETRACYCLINES 100 MG/KG SC SID (3 MG/30 GM)(3) // DW 3 MG/ML(3) BACTERIAL STATIC BROAD SPEC//FROG RED LEG
TRIMETHOPRIM (40MG/ML)/SULPHADOXINE (200MG/ML) (TRIBRISSEN) 30 MG/KG PO, SC, IM a12h (14) // 0.5 ML/KG SC Q12H(2) TRIMETHOPRIM / SULPHONAMIDE
TYLOSIN 0.5 MG/ML DW (14) // 10 MG/KG PO, SC, IM q24h (14) // 2-5 MG/ML DW10 MG/KG SC Q12H(2) // OR (0.3 MG/KG GM) IM(3) MACROLIDES
ANTICHOLINERGIC Dose Comments / Back to Top
ATROPINE - DOSAGE 0.04 MG/KG SC IM(2)/(3)(14) ANTICHOLINERGIC
ATROPINE - DURATION EFFECT 25 MIN ANTICHOLINERGIC
ATROPINE - TIME TO EFFECT 10MIN ANTICHOLINERGIC
ANTIPARASITIC Dose Comments / Back to Top
DICHLORVOS (TASK) 250-500 MG/KG FOOD 1D ECTOPARASITIC-SYPH,  HETER
DICHLORVOS (VOPONA STRIPS) STRIP 48H/WK//OR1 OVER CAGE 24 H/W(3) // Suspend 15 cm above cage x 24 hr, then 2 x /wk x 3 wk (14) ECTOPARASITIC
DIMETRIDAZOLE 1 MG/ML DW (14) GASTROINTESTINAL PROTOZOA
DITHIAZANINE IODINE 0.1 MG/KG FOOD 7D SYPH.  HETER.  STRONG.TR
FENBENDAZOLE 0.3% FEED X 14 DAYS (14) // 20 (50 FOR GIARDIASIS) MG/KG PO X 5 DAYS (14) CESTODES, PINWORMS, GIARDIASIS
FIPRONIL (FRONTLINE)  7.5 MG/KG TOP q30-60d (14) FLEA ADULTCIDE
IVERMECTIN (IVOMEC) 0.2 MG/KG PO, SC q7d X 3 WK (14) // 8 MG/L DW X 4 D/WK X 5 WK (14) // 200 MCG/KG PO SC(3) MITE, PINWORMS
MEBENDAZOLE (TELMIN) 10 MG/KG PO 5D(3) NEMATODIASIS COSMOCE
METRONIDAZOLE (FLAGYL) 15 MG/KG IP 1X GIARDIA
NICLOSAMIDE (YOMESAN) 100 MG/KG PO(3) CESTODES-HYMENOLEPSIS
PIPERAZINE CITRATE 2-5 MG/ML DW X 7 DAYS, OFF 7 DAY, REPEAT (14) // 100 MG/KG PO(3) // 16GM/GAL WATER + 200 ML KARO SYRUP SIDX3, REPEAT IN 2 WKS (8) ANTI-NEMATODES-SYPHACIA & HET & PINWORMS
PRAZIQUANTEL 6-10 MG/KG PO (14) // 30 MG/KG PO q14d X 3 TX (14) CESTODES
PYRVINIUM PAMOATE 1.6 MG/KG/D 30D SYPH. HETER.ENTEROBIU
SULFADIMETHOXINE 10-15 MG/KG PO q12h (14) COCCIDIOSIS
SULFAMERAZINE 1 MG/ML DW (14) EIMERIA/COCCIDIOSIS
THIABENDAZOLE (TBZ; OMIZOLE) 1 MG/ML DW (14) // 100 MG/KG PO q24h X 5D(14)(3) COCCIDIOSIS/ASCARIDIASIS
MISCELLANEOUS Dose   Comments / Back to Top
ATROPINE 20-40 MG/ANIMAL PO (14) ANTICHOLINERGIC
DEXAMETHASONE 0.5-2.0 MG/KG PO, SC, DECREASE DOSE q12h X 3-14 DAYS (14) ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
DOXAPRAM 5-10 MG/KG IP, IV (14) RESPIRATORY STIMULANT
FUROSEMIDE 5-10 MG/KG SC, IM q12h (14) DIURETIC/PULMONARY CONGESTION/ASCITES
LACTATED RINGER'S SOLUTION 50-100 ML/KG SC, IV, IO q12h (14) MAINTENANCE FLUID
LOPERAMIDE (IMODIUM A-D) 0.1 MG/KG PO q8h X 3 DAYS THEN q24h X 2 DAYS (GIVEN IN 1.0 ML WATER)(14) DIARRHEA
OXYTOCIN 0.2-3 UNITS/KG SC IM IV (14)(9) DELAYED PARTURITION, UTERINE/MILK HORM.
PREDNISONE 0.5-2.2 MG/KG SC IM (14) ANTI-INFLAMMATORY
VITAMIN B COMPLEX 0.02-0.20 ML/KG SC IM (14)
VITAMIN D 200-400 IU/KG SC IM (14)
VITAMIN E/SELENIUM 0.1ML/100-250 G SC (14)
VITAMIN K1 1-10 MG/KG IM q214h  X 4-6 DAYS (14)  WARFARIN POISONING
EUTHANASIA   Dose   Comments / Back to Top
Sodium pentobarbital  150 mg/kg IP Controlled substance
Halothane  To effect High Concentration, Rapid flow, High flow rates may initially frighten the animal, If a chamber is used Animal should not come into contact with liquid, Animals should not be overcrowded, Animals should be compatible
Isoflurane To effect  High Concentration, Rapid flow, High flow rates may initially frighten the animal, If a chamber is used Animal should not come into contact with liquid, Animals should not be overcrowded, Animals should be compatible
CO2  To effect No breathing, no heart beat/pulse, no response to toe/ear pinch for at least 2 minutes, Must use a gas cylinder
CO To effect No breathing, no heart beat/pulse, no response to toe/ear pinch for at least 2 minutes, Very hazardous, Must use a gas cylinder 
Potassium chloride  1-2 mmol/kg IV or  Intracardiac Requires general anesthesia
Cervical dislocation Conditionally acceptable Requires another method
Decapitation Conditionally acceptable Requires another method
Chloral hydrate  Unacceptable
NOTES Abbreviations / Back to Top     
(1) = Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals: American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine: 1990
(2) = Laboratory Animal Anesthesia: Flecknell: 1989
(3) = Drug Dosages for Small Mammals: McKellar: 1989
(4) = Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals: NRC: 1992
(5) = Current Veterinary Therapy 2 Food Animal Practice
(6) = University of Calif., San Fran., Morrish
(7) = Basic Care of Experimental Animals
(8) = Therapeutic Guide and Anesthesia, O'Harndley
(9) = The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents
(10) = ???????? Continuing Education Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1992
(11) = USUHS Formulary
(12) = LAB ANIMAL OCT 91 PAGE 34
(13) = Anesthesia and Analgesia Doses, SCHAEFFER, KNOXVILLE, TN
(14) = Exotic Animal Formulary, Carpenter, Saunders:2001
EOD = Every Other Day
SID = Once a day
BID = Twice a day (generally every 12 hours)
TID = Three times a day (every 8 hours)
QID = Four times a day (every 6 hours)
Q?H = Every ? hours
IM = Intramuscular injection
IP = Intraperitoneal injection
SC or SQ = Subcutaneous injection
IV = Intravenous injection
PO = Per Os (By Mouth) (Orally)
DW = Drinking water
3DX4 = 3 days of treatment, repeated 4 times





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